Sage Outcome Measures
Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale
The Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS; Gratz and Roemer, 2004) assesses emotion dysregulation. It comprises six domains: non-acceptance of emotions, inability to engage in goal directed behaviours when distressed, impulse control, emotional awareness, emotion regulation strategies, and emotional clarity. The measure consists of 36 items scored on a 5-point scale from 1 “almost never” to 5 “almost always”. Total scale scores range from 36 to 180 with higher scores indicating greater difficulties regulating emotion. Gratz and Roemer (2004) reported good internal reliability (α = .93), construct and predictive validity, and test-retest reliability in an article which described the development of this scale.
Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale
The 21-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) is a set of three self-report scales designed to measure the emotional states of depression, anxiety and stress. Each of the three DASS-21 scales contains 7 items, divided into subscales with similar content. Each item comprises a statement and four short response options to reflect severity and scored from 0 (Did not apply to me at all) to 3 (Applied to me very much, or most of the time). In order to yield equivalent scores to the full DASS 42, the total score of each scale is multiplied by two (Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995) and ranges from 0 to 42. The depression scale assesses dysphoria, hopelessness, devaluation of life, self-deprecation, lack of interest / involvement, anhedonia and inertia. The anxiety scale assesses autonomic arousal, skeletal muscle effects, situational anxiety, and subjective experience of anxious affect. The stress scale is sensitive to levels of chronic non-specific arousal. It assesses difficulty relaxing, nervous arousal, and being easily upset / agitated, irritable / over-reactive and impatient. Scores for depression, anxiety and stress are calculated by summing the scores for the relevant items. The DASS-21 is based on a dimensional rather than a categorical conception of psychological disorder. The assumption on which the DASS-21 development was based (and which was confirmed by the research data) is that the differences between the depression, anxiety and the stress experienced by normal subjects and clinical populations are essentially differences of degree. The DASS-21 therefore has no direct implications for the allocation of patients to discrete diagnostic categories postulated in classificatory systems such as the DSM and ICD.