Living Through Psychosis Programme Outcome Measures
Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS)
The Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS; Gratz and Roemer, 2004) assesses emotion dys-regulation, comprising six domains: non-acceptance of emotions, inability to engage in goal directed behaviours when distressed, impulse control, emotional awareness, emotion regulation strategies, and emotional clarity. The measure consists of 36 items scored on a 5-point scale from 1 “almost never” to 5 “almost always”. Total scale scores range from 36 to 180 with higher scores indicating greater difficulties regulating emotion. Gratz and Roemer (2004) reported good internal reliability (α = .93), construct and predictive validity, and test-retest reliability in the development study.
Fear of Recurrence Scale (FORSE) (Gumley & Schwannauer, 1999)
The Fear of Recurrence Scale (FORSE) is a 23-item self-report inventory, which measures to what extent individuals with psychosis appraise their thinking and intrusions as threatening and indicative of relapse (Gumley & Schwannauer, 2006a). Higher total scores on FORSE are associated with greater positive symptoms, general psychopathology, and more negative illness beliefs (White & Gumley, 2009).
Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS 21: Giffort, Schmook, Woody, Vollendorf, & Gervain, 1995).
The Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS: Giffort, Schmook, Woody, Vollendorf, & Gervain, 1995) assesses service user empowerment, coping ability, and quality of life. The RAS-21 is a 21-item survey rated on a 5-point scale from 1 “Strongly Disagree” to 5 “Strongly Agree”. The RAS was found to have good test-retest reliability (r = 0.88) along with good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.93; Corrigan, Giffort, Rashid, Leary, & Okeke, 1999). Scale scores have been found to be positively associated with self-esteem, empowerment, social support, and quality of life, indicating good concurrent validity. It was inversely associated with psychiatric symptoms suggesting discriminant validity (Corrigan, Giffort, Rashid, Leary, & Okeke, 1999).